Collection: Vaccines and Immunization Campaigns

As the global health community has focused on COVID-19, other diseases are getting pushed to the side. The disruption of planned vaccine distribution has led to the resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases in multiple areas. Below are resources, toolkits, frameworks for action, and case studies related to vaccines in two categories: Tools for COVID-19 Vaccination Campaigns, and Vaccination Campaigns.


Tools for COVID-19 Vaccinations


WHO COVID-19 Vaccine Introduction Toolbox

Countries are beginning to deploy COVID-19 vaccines, bringing new hope to the fight against the global pandemic. WHO, UNICEFGavi and many other partners are working together to support countries in preparing for COVID-19 vaccine introduction. With careful planning, countries can ensure infrastructure is in place and the technical support available to safely deliver COVID-19 vaccines. The COVID-19 vaccine introduction toolbox, designed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to equip all countries to prepare for and implement COVID-19 vaccination by providing guidance, tools and training. This toolbox is intended to support Ministries of Health, health workers, partner organizations, and other stakeholders, and is organized in line with the Guidance on Developing a National Deployment and Vaccination Plan for COVID-19 vaccines. Standout resources of the toolbox include:

View the toolkit.


Vaccination Campaigns

Immunization Agenda 2030 Framework for Action

The purpose of the IA2030 Framework for Action is to describe how four critical operational elements enable a successful translation of the strategy into its implementation phase to achieve the IA2030 vision. These include regional and national strategies that prioritize actions for operational planning; mechanisms to ensure appropriate ownership and accountability (O&A); monitoring and evaluation (M&E) frameworks to guide and monitor country implementation; and communication and advocacy to create the necessary messaging and reinforce the required actions by all stakeholders throughout the decade.

Implementation of IA2030 will initially focus on a comprehensive response to the COVID-19 pandemic. An urgent priority is the rapid and equitable scale-up of COVID-19 vaccines in all countries as well as collective action to catch up on missed vaccinations and rebuild essential services. Rebuilding of immunization programmes will make a major contribution to the strengthening of primary health care systems. Effective childhood and adult immunization programmes, including COVID-19, will lie at the heart of resilient and sustainable primary health care systems that will be central to future global health security. View the framework. 


WHO Second round of the national pulse survey on continuity of essential health services during the COVID-19 pandemic

This report presents global findings from the 135 countries and territories that participated in the second round of the survey during January-March 2021. The findings offer critical insight from country key informants into the extent of impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on essential health services across the life course, the reasons for those disruptions, and how countries are adapting strategies and approaches to maintain service delivery. View the report.


Use of surveys to evaluate an integrated oral cholera vaccine campaign in response to a cholera outbreak in Hoima district, Uganda

Following a cholera outbreak in Hoima, Uganda, a campaign was launched to deliver oral cholera vaccince (OCV). This case study includes a survey of the communities targeted for vaccination to determine vaccine coverage rates and perceptions of the vaccination campaign, and a separate survey of vaccine staff who carried out the campaign. It makes several suggestions for improving future campaigns, including additional effort for community sensitization, additional resources for staff transportation and timely payment for campaign staff. Pretest and post-test assessment of staff training can identify and address knowledge and skill gaps. View the resource.


Increasing Measles Seroprevalence in a Sample of Pediatric and Adolescent Population of Tuscany (Italy): A Vaccination Campaign Success

Despite Italy’s National Plan for the Elimination of Measles and congenital Rubella (NPEMcR), a measles outbreak occurred, due to sub-optimal vaccination coverage (<95%) for many years. This study confirmed the anti-measles vaccination campaign success, which allowed for the increase in vaccination coverage and immunity levels against measles in the Florentine pediatric and adolescent population following the NPEMcR implementation. View the resource.


COVID-19 outbreak: a potential threat to routine vaccination programme activities in Nigeria

Disruptions from COVID-19 have resulted in the postponement of Gavi-supported vaccination campaigns against polio, measles, cholera, human papillomavirus, yellow fever and meningitis, which would have vaccinated 13 million or more people across Nigeria and sub-saharan Africa. This article looks at the hinderance COVID-19 has posed to vaccination activities in Nigeria and across Sub-Saharan Africa with associated threat to surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases. View the report.


The world’s largest COVID-19 vaccination campaign

India takes up the challenge to vaccinate 300 million people in the initial stage of COVID-19 immunization program. The country draws on its previous experience in carrying out large and targeted vaccination campaigns against diseases, such as measles, tetanus, and diphtheria, under the country’s Universal Immunization Program, which targets 26·7 million newborns and 29 million pregnant women every year. View the report.


The epidemiologic impact and cost-effectiveness of new tuberculosis vaccines on multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in India and China

This study modeled and compared two simulated vaccination strategies: mass vaccination campaigns, and routine annual vaccination. It projects a potential reduction in the RR/MDR-TB incidence rate of approximately 70% in both India and China if vaccine is delivered annually to 9-year-olds and every 10 years to ages 10 and above.  View the report.


A cost-effectiveness analysis of South Africa’s seasonal influenza vaccination programme

South Africa relies on campaigns to distribute seasonal influenza vaccines. This study employs the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Cost Effectiveness Tool for Seasonal Influenza Vaccination (CETSIV) to evaluate one such campaign from a public healthcare provider and societal perspective. View the report.

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