Nigeria has a high burden of both measles and meningitis A in the northern region, which lies in the ‘meningitis belt’ of Africa. Measles has an incidence rate of 33.6 cases per million, 70% of which are in children <5 years of age. Meningitis A was responsible for 50,000 cases and 2,000 deaths in 2009.
Nigeria’s Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) delivers vaccines through the primary care system and via vaccination campaigns. Partially integrated vaccination campaigns have been conducted since 2014, mainly through maternal health and child survival interventions. In 2019-2020, the National Primary Health Care Development Agency (NPHCDA) implemented the first simultaneously integrated campaign for more than one injectable vaccine in 20 states (two vaccinations of either measles, yellow fever, or meningitis A vaccine). The decision to fully integrate was driven by: